Understanding Infertility

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Infertility Treatment in Ghaziabad & Noida Extension | Understanding Infertility

Infertility is medically defined as, not getting pregnant or conceiving even after one year of unprotected sex. It is believed that a woman who is above 35 years of age or who do not have regular menstrual cycles has the greatest chances of infertility. Such women should certainly consult a gynaecologist. Infertility can be below types-

1. Primary infertility - It occurs when the female partner fails to bear a baby after trying for nearly 12 months of sex, without manipulation by a contraceptive or condom.

2. Secondary infertility- It occurs when the couple had conceived earlier but is incapable to do so now.

It is estimated that approximately 8-10% of couples experience some form of infertility problems. On a worldwide scale, this means that 50-80 million people suffer from infertility.

Infertility is a couple problem. The incidence of infertility in men and women is almost identical. Infertility is exclusively a female problem in 30-40% of the cases and exclusively a male problem in 30-40% of the cases. Problems common to both partners are diagnosed in 10-15% of infertile couples. After thorough medical investigations, the causes of the fertility problem remain unexplained in only a minority of infertile couples (5-10%). This is called unexplained infertility.

What takes women to get pregnant?
  • A woman's body should release an egg from one of her ovaries (ovulation).
  • A man's sperm must link with the egg along the way (fertilize).
  • The fertilized egg must enter the fallopian tube toward the uterus (womb).
  • The fertilized egg must join the inside of the uterus (implantation).
Some possible causes of female infertility are

Getting pregnant and carrying a pregnancy to term are actually very complicated processes. Many things can go wrong during these processes to lead to infertility. For this reason, the following list includes only some of the common causes of infertility in females; it is not meant to be all-inclusive. A woman who is having difficulty getting pregnant or carrying a pregnancy to term should talk with her health care provider about possible treatments.

Failure to Ovulate

The most common overall cause of female infertility is the failure to ovulate, which occurs in 40% of women with infertility issues.1 Not ovulating can result from several causes, such as:

  • Ovarian or gynecological conditions, such as primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
  • Aging , including "diminished ovarian reserve," which refers to a low number of eggs in a woman's ovaries due to normal aging
  • Endocrine disorders, such as thyroid disease or problems with the hypothalamus, which affect the hormones produced by the body so that there might be too much or too little of a hormone or group of hormones
  • Lifestyle and environmental factors
Problems in the Menstrual Cycle

Problems with the menstrual cycle, the process that prepares the female body for pregnancy, can lead to infertility. The menstrual cycle includes several phases, and problems at any one of the stages can lead to difficulty getting pregnant or to infertility.

Structural Problems of the Reproductive System

Structural problems usually involve the presence of abnormal tissue in the fallopian tubes or uterus.

If the fallopian tubes are blocked, eggs are not able to move from the ovaries to the uterus and sperm is not able to reach the egg for fertilization. Structural problems with the uterus, such as those that may interfere with implantation, can also cause infertility.

Some specific structural problems that can cause infertility include:

  • Endometriosis, when tissue that normally lines the inside of the uterus is found in other places, such as blocking the fallopian tubes
  • Uterine fibroids, growths that appear within and around the wall of the uterus, although most women with fibroids do not have problems with fertility and can get pregnant. However, some women with fibroids may not be able to get pregnant naturally or may have multiple miscarriages or preterm labor.
  • Polyps, which are noncancerous growths on the inside surface of the uterus. Polyps can interfere with the function of the uterus and make it difficult for a woman to remain pregnant after conception. Surgical removal of the polyps can increase the chances for a woman to get pregnant.
  • Scarring in the uterus from previous injuries, infections, or surgery. Scarring may increase the risk of miscarriage and may interfere with implantation, thus leading to infertility.
  • An unusually shaped uterus, which can affect implantation and the ability to carry a pregnancy to term

Infections can also cause infertility in men and women.

Untreated gonorrhea and chlamydia in women can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, which might cause scarring that blocks the fallopian tubes. Untreated syphilis increases the risk for a pregnant woman to have a stillbirth. More information about infections that may affect fertility can be found on the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) health topic page.

Chronic infections in the cervix and surgical treatment of cervical lesions associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection can also reduce the amount or quality of cervical mucus. Problems with this sticky or slippery substance that collects on the cervix and in the vagina can make it difficult for women to get pregnant.

Failure of an Egg to Mature Properly

Eggs may not mature properly for a variety of reasons, ranging from conditions such as PCOS, to obesity, to a lack of specific proteins needed for the egg to mature.

An immature egg may not be released at the correct time, may not make it down the fallopian tubes, or may not be able to be fertilized.

Implantation Failure

Implantation failure refers to the failure of a fertilized egg to implant in the uterine wall to begin pregnancy. While the specific cause of implantation failure are often unknown, possibilities include

  • Genetic defects in the embryo
  • Thin endometrium
  • Embryonic defects
  • Endometriosis
  • Progesterone resistance
  • Scar tissue in the endometrial cavity

Endometriosis occurs when the cells that normally line the uterine cavity, called the endometrium, are found outside the uterus instead. Studies show that between 25% and 50% of infertile woman have endometriosis and between 30% and 40% of women with endometriosis are infertile.

Endometriosis can cause pelvic adhesions made of scar tissue to form between nearby structures, such as between the ovary and pelvic wall. This can obstruct and affect the release of the egg after ovulation. Scarring in the fallopian tube can interrupt block the egg's movement through the fallopian tube. Endometriosis causes chemical changes in the lining of the uterus that may affect an embryo's ability to implant properly and make it difficult for a woman to stay pregnant after conception.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

PCOS is one of the most common causes of female infertility.9 It is a condition in which a woman's ovaries and, in some cases, adrenal glands produce more androgens (a type of hormone) than normal. High levels of these hormones interfere with the development of ovarian follicles and release of eggs during ovulation. As a result, fluid-filled sacs, or cysts, can develop within the ovaries.

Primary Ovary Insufficiency (POI)

POI is a condition in which a woman's ovaries stop producing hormones and eggs at a young age. Women with POI ovulate irregularly, if at all, and may have abnormal levels of ovarian and pituitary hormones due to problems with their ovaries.

Women with POI often have trouble getting pregnant. However, pregnancy is still possible, though rare. About 5% to 10% of women with POI get pregnant without medical treatment

Uterine Fibroids

Fibroids can contribute to infertility and are found in 5% to 10% of infertile women. Fibroids located in the uterine cavity (as opposed to those that grow within the uterine wall) or those that are larger than 6 centimeters in diameter are more likely to have a negative effect on fertility. Fibroids are more likely to affect a woman's fertility if they change the position of the cervix, which can reduce the number of sperm that enter the uterus change the shape of the uterus, which can interfere with the movement of sperm or implantation or if they block the fallopian tubes, which prevents sperm from reaching the egg and keeps a fertilized egg from moving to the uterus

Autoimmune Disorders

Autoimmune disorders cause the body's immune system to attack normal body tissues it would normally ignore. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus, Hashimoto's and other types of thyroiditis, or rheumatoid arthritis, may affect fertility. Both men and women can make antibodies that attack sperm or the reproductive organs.


Even after a full fertility work-up, for one in five couples an exact cause of infertility cannot be determined. Unexplained infertility is not the same thing as having no explanation, but rather reflects the fact that the tests performed have been normal. There is always an explanation! Often, in vitro fertilization (IVF) can reveal abnormalities in egg quality, sperm function, or embryo development that would not have been determined from standard testing. Thankfully, even when the cause of infertility is not known, various fertility treatments can eventually lead to delivery of a healthy baby.

Some possible causes of male infertility are

A varicocele is a swelling of the veins that drain the testicle, which can impact sperm quality. Varicocele can affect one or both testes. The majority of men with varicocele present no symptoms.

Ejaculation Disorders

Ejaculation disorders include premature ejaculation, an-ejaculation (the failure to ejaculate), and retrograde ejaculation, which is when semen enters the bladder during orgasm instead of coming out the tip of the penis.


Anti-sperm antibodies are immune system cells that mistakenly identify sperm as harmful invaders and attempt to eliminate them.


Cancers and nonmalignant tumors can affect the male reproductive organs directly, through the glands that release hormones related to reproduction, such as the pituitary gland, or through unknown causes. Additionally, surgery, radiation or chemotherapy to treat tumors can affect male fertility.


During fetal development one or both testicles may fail to descend from the abdomen into the sac that normally contains the testicles. Infertility is more likely in men who have had this condition.


Infertility can result from disorders of the testicles themselves or an abnormality affecting other hormonal systems including the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal problems have a number of possible underlying causes.


There are many different tubes that carry sperm. They can be blocked due to numerous causes, including infections, trauma or abnormal development, such as with cystic fibrosis or similar inherited conditions.


Hereditary disorders, such as Klinefelter’s syndrome (when a male is born with two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome instead of one X and one Y) impacts the normal development of the male reproductive organs.


These can include trouble keeping or maintaining an erection sufficient for sex (erectile dysfunction), premature ejaculation, painful intercourse, anatomical abnormalities such as having a urethral opening beneath the penis (hypospadias), or psychological or relationship problems that interfere with sex.


Testosterone replacement therapy, long-term anabolic steroid use, cancer medications (chemotherapy), certain antifungal medications, some ulcer drugs and certain other medications can impair sperm production and decrease male fertility.


Certain surgeries may prevent you from having sperm in your ejaculate, including vasectomy, inguinal hernia repairs, scrotal or testicular surgeries, prostate surgeries, and large abdominal surgeries performed for testicular and rectal cancers, among others. In most cases, surgery can be performed to either reverse these blockage or to retrieve sperm directly from the epididymis and testicles.


A digestive disorder caused by sensitivity to gluten, celiac disease can cause male infertility. Fertility may improve after adopting a gluten-free diet.


Some infections, such as gonorrhea or inflammation of the testicles, can affect sperm production or sperm health or can cause scarring that blocks the passage of sperm.


We believe Infertility can be cured with medicine, surgery, Intrauterine Insemination (IUI), or Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) and in combination with these treatments.

. Shweta Mishra suggest infertility treatments based on:

  • The women’s age.
  • The factors affecting infertility.
  • As per the couple's preference after therapy session on success rates, risks, and advantage of each treatment alternative.
  • The infertility duration.
  • Woman’s overall health state
Infertility Doctor Specialist in Ghaziabad & Noida Extension

Dr Shweta Mishra has been unceasingly working with the best medical care in Ghaziabad & Noida Extension. She is expert in her field and supports the well-being and health of couple who are circumnavigating infertility, postpartum depression, pregnancy loss, anxiety, and transitions into parenthood. Not every patient has the same reason for infertility. Dr. Shweta follows a specialized procedure to manage the pregnancy for patients when other fertility treatments are futile or are inaccessible.

Every parent wants to live life with their child. She make sure the women get over from the challenging situation of infertility as soon she enters our clinic. Dr. Shweta knows the value of motherhood, and we do our best to make it a reality.

Get in touch with Dr. Shweta Mishra at her Crossings Republik, Ghaziabad (Crossings Republik Clinic Location & Direction) clinic for Infertility Treatment in Ghaziabad, or either at Amrapali Icon Leisure Valley, Greater Noida West (Noida Extension Clinic Location & Direction) clinic for Infertility Treatment in Noida Extension. Also, you could make a wellness appointment at any clinic location convenient to you.